Technology transfer is when knowledge, technology or a production organization practice created by one object is used in the activity of another. Whether it is a knowledge transfer from fundamental research into applied technologies or just an exchange of production practice between two commercial objects it is a process of a human intellect, which is implemented through education, scientific literature or a direct human contact.
Technology transfer is a process which allows using a created technology by initiating communication between concerned parties. An example of such communication is the invention of gun powder. This invention was a breakthrough in the military history. We can just imagine what effect it had on the enemy which did not know this technology, when the Chinese used the gun powder for the first time in the 8th century. Invention of PC can illustrate the enormous economical and social effect of the usage of transferred technologies.
Therefore, technology transfer is becoming the corner stone of the regional economical and social development.
Technology transfer can be carried out in three directions:
Science to science
A way of a new technology from fundamental research to its application value is quite long. Before a technology is presented to a user it is often tested at various laboratories and assessed by different science field experts. In order to ensure the maximal application effect of a new technology, special assessment groups are being formed consisting of scientists from various science fields. Scientific inventions and discoveries are assessed and developed by different scientific subjects and published in the scientific literature.
Science to business
This is a knowledge and technology commercialization process, which is implemented through communication between science and businesses by creation of innovative products and services.
Business to business
This is a transfer of production or organizational practices. Many of technology transfer processes are implemented with the help of qualified experts - technology transfer centers.